Topics / EU vehicle targets

The EU first introduced mandatory 2015 CO2 standards for new passenger cars in 2009. For light-commercial vehicles a similar regulation, setting mandatory 2017 targets, was passed in 2011. At the end of 2013, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union reached an agreement regarding two regulatory proposals that will implement mandatory 2020 CO2 emission targets for new passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles in the European Union. The passenger car standards are 95 g/km of CO2, phasing in for 95% of vehicles in 2020 with 100% compliance in 2021. The light-commercial vehicle standards are 147 g/km of CO2 for 2020. Since a quarter of Europe’s GHG emissions come from the transport sector, reaching these targets will have a powerful impact and create a ripple effect, since many countries pattern their regulations on the European standards. CO2 standards for new vehicles in the post-2020 timeline are currently under preparation by the European Commission.

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Summarizes and evaluates key elements of the November 2017 European Commission proposal as it goes to the European Parliament and the European Council.

A synopsis of key findings from previous ICCT studies relevant to a 2025–2030 standard in the EU, including technology potential and associated compliance cost, the role of electrified vehicles, and the switch to a new emissions testing procedure.

This update adds two new data sources, for a total of 13, covering 15 years, six countries, and approximately 1 million cars. The analysis shows that, in the EU, the gap between official and real-world CO2 emission values continues to grow—from 9% in 2001 to 42% in 2015.


This paper presents new analysis on the implications of the current inertia class based system and outlines two alternative approaches for discussion within the WLTP-DTP working group.

Publication: Working paper

Based on an assessment of production costs for two GPF designs, we estimate for a 2.0L gasoline engine a cost of $106 for a stand-alone GPF and between $114 and $154 for a four-way catalyst, presented here as a three-way catalyst (TWC) with PM trapping capabilities.

Publication: Working paper
On July 29 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S.
Blog Post

Assesses various potential index parameters for vehicle emissions performance standards and analyzes the effects of different target systems on individual manufacturers and vehicles.

Publication: White paper
The biggest passenger vehicle markets have progressively seen an increased penetration of highly fuel-efficient and technologically advanced automobiles (defined as vehicles having the lowest emissions of CO2 in g/km).
Blog Post

The ICCT, with the help of CE Delft, organized a workshop in Brussels on accounting for electric drive vehicles in the context of European CO2 emission legislation.


Builds on more detailed explanations in past WLTP doucments and presents, for discussion, a proposal for defining inertia classes for the WLTP GTR.

Publication: Working paper

This paper was submitted to the UNECE GRPE informal subgroup on the development of a worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP-DTP) on the issue of inertia classes to be used in the development of the WLTP.

Publication: Working paper

On February 15, 2011 the European Parliament adopted legislation that, for the first time, will regulate CO2 emissions from light commercial vehicles (LCV) in Europe. It is expected to formally become law in the first half of 2011.

Publication: Policy update