Assesses feasibility, benefits, and costs of phasing out HFC-134a from the Chinese LDV fleet, focusing on three alternatives—HFO-1234yf, HFC-152a and CO2 (R-744)—most likely to be adopted by automakers with a global supply chain.
Current non-road regulatory programs lag behind comparable programs for on-road diesel engines, and are not stringent enough to compel the use of the best available technologies for the control of PM and NOx emissions.
Analyzes EV uptake at the city level, and assesses public charging infrastructure, model availability, and other factors to identify leading-edge markets in California. Provides a detailed analysis of the 30 California cities with the highest rates of EV penetration, examining how governments, utilities, businesses, and nonprofits are promoting EVs.
This paper provides an analysis of transmission technology development and trends, and compares them to the projections made by EPA and NHTSA for the 2025 CAFE regulation.
Details how implementing well-tested policy measures can help drive forward the necessary innovations and could reduce the total CO2 emissions of the LDV fleet in Turkey by about 36% compared to a business-as-usual scenario.
Legal note from Défense Terre analyzing the U.S. vehicle emissions regulation and associated guidance documentation and proposing areas where the European Union's type approval framework text could benefit from improved language.
A summary of the history and current state of biofuels policy in Indonesia, highlighting the tension between the country’s renewable energy policy and the ambition in reducing its carbon emissions.
Details how emission control defect reporting programs are used to improve compliance with passenger vehicle emission standards.
Aims to inform the debate over how electric vehicle technology could fit into a lower-carbon new-vehicle fleet in Europe in 2020–2030. Although the analysis is focused on Europe, similar technology, policy, and market dynamics can be observed throughout North America and Asia.
Reviews the environmental impacts of palm oil production for biofuel in Indonesia, including greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and air and water pollution.
The goal of this new stage of standard is to reduce fuel consumption by about 15% in 2020 from the 2015 levels, in order to further reduce the gap between China and other more developed markets globally.
Comprehensive technical overview of the Euro 6/VI vehicle emissions standards, looking at the historical context of the European regulations and considering what is likely to come next.
Summary of provisional data from the European Environment Agency. Average CO2 emissions from new cars sold in the EU in 2015 were 119.6 g CO2/km, 8% below the 2015 target and 3% lower than in 2014.
One in a series of technical briefs highlighting important innovations and trends in "conventional" automotive technologies, which are significantly outpacing projections made at the time the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized.
Profiles and evaluates recent developments in naturally aspirated gasoline engine technologies, and compares them to the projections made by EPA and NHTSA for the 2025 CAFE regulation.
A feasibility study of evaluating real-world CO2 emissions from light duty vehicles using generic simulation models, as a means of extending on-road testing to also cover fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Explores the potential for improving home collection of used cooking oil for biodiesel production in the EU.