Some heavy-duty diesel vehicles certified to the Euro IV and V standards emit excess NOx emissions when operating in low-speed, urban driving conditions. In some cases, real-world NOx emissions from these vehicles even exceed those of Euro III vehicles.
In February 2013, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) released two new local standards specifically designed to prevent these excess NOx emissions. In so doing, Beijing has become the first region in the world to attempt to solve a known deficiency in the Euro IV and V standards by requiring additional environmental testing (including both supplemental testing beyond the type approval stage as well as in-use compliance testing).
The Beijing standards, which supplement the existing national China IV and V standards, apply to China IV and V vehicles with gross vehicle weight above 3,500kg and registered in Beijing. In summary:
- DB11/964-2013 “Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from compression ignition and gas fuelled positive ignition engines of vehicles (Bench mode methods),” requires China IV and V engines to be tested over the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) in addition to the currently required European Transient Cycle (ETC). Both cold-start and hot-start testing are required, with results weighted 14% and 86%, respectively.
- DB11/965-2013 “Limits and measurement method of emissions from heavy duty vehicle (PEms method),” establishes in-use, complete vehicle Portable Emission Measurement system testing requirements for manufacturers to prove that real-world emissions do not exceed certification limit values.
The two supplemental standards do not change the existing national type-approval process. Rather, they represent new “environmental protection approval” requirements that must be met for applicable HDVs and their engines to be registered in Beijing.
The two standards were implemented on March 1 and July 1, 2013, respectively. Together, the standards are designed to force manufacturers to employ NOx reductions strategies that function across a broader range of exhaust temperatures and therefore vehicle operating conditions.
The Beijing EPB estimates that implementation of these standards may reduce NOx emissions from applicable China IV/V diesel vehicles by up to 60% during urban operation. The Beijing EPB has even announced their intention to retrofit the approximately 9,000 existing China IV and V heavy-duty vehicles sold in Beijing prior to implementation of the new standards.
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