The basic CO2 data used in the development of the EU cost curves is derived from simulation modeling performed by Ricardo inc. This paper summarizes how the data developed by Ricardo was processed to provide the CO2 estimates used as inputs in the development of the EU cost curves.
All of the CO2 estimates used for cost curve development were derived from the Ricardo Data Visualization Tool (DVT), an interactive database produced as an integral component of Ricardo's simulation modeling that allows a user to estimate CO2 emissions for a selected set of input parameters. The DVT produces CO2 estimates given user-selected definitions for these parameters:
- Vehicle class
- Vehicle architecture
- Engine technology
- Transmission technology
- Engine Displacement
- Final Drive ratio (FDR)
- Rolling resistance characteristics
- Aerodynamic drag characteristics (CD × Vehicle frontal area)
- Vehicle test weight
- Engine efficiency
- Electric drive motor size
The basic methodology used to generate CO2 estimates for the EU cost curves consists of executing the DVT for four distinct modeling scenarios, one of which is used to develop adjustment factors and three of which are used to generate cost curve data points.