This analysis examines the potential of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India less than 12 tonnes over the next 10 years. This is a follow-up study to research that we completed for the greater than 12-tonne segment. We developed simulation models for two representative HDV types—a 12-tonne rigid truck, and a 7.5-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for both vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels. Results from our simulation modeling of rigid truck and transit bus reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that are expected to be available in India over the next 10 years.