Effectively enforced vehicle CO2 performance standards are at the core of any effort to realize lower-carbon transport. EU member states should implement supporting policy measures such as emissions-based vehicle taxes, mandates for electric vehicles, and emissions-based road pricing.
Reviews recent research regarding greenhouse gas emissions from the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. We analyze this research in the overall context of life-cycle emissions of electric cars as compared to conventional internal combustion vehicles in Europe. Finally, we discuss the primary drivers of battery manufacturing emissions and how these emissions could be further mitigated in the future.
Finds that ILUC emissions from energy cropping are highly sensitive to assumptions of the composition of marginal lands and suggests that additional sustainability safeguards may be necessary for energy cropping in order to ensure that it only occurs on low-carbon stock land.
A comprehensive overview of vehicle remote sensing, an emissions measurement technique which has been used for more than 25 years to evaluate emissions from passing motor vehicles in real-world driving. Reviews technical details of the vehicle remote sensing test method, describes the multiple types of emissions analyses that can be conducted with remote sensing data, and explores areas where remote sensing can supplement emission test methods currently used in the European Union light-duty vehicle regulatory program.
Der derzeitige Rückgangs des Dieselanteils zieht keine negativen Auswirkungen auf die Erreichbarkeit der Klimaschutzziele nach sich. Vor diesem Hintergrund sollte ein Festhalten an der derzeitigen Subvention von Dieselkraftstoff für Pkw kritisch hinterfragt und eine Angleichung der Steuersätze für Diesel und Benzin in Erwägung gezogen werden.
Summarizes the potential in Europe of presently available efficiency technologies to produce fuel savings that greatly exceed the upfront costs of technology and maintenance, and evaluates emerging advanced efficiency technologies that offer even more substantial fuel savings and short payback periods over the long term.
Summarizes and evaluates key elements of the November 2017 European Commission proposal as it goes to the European Parliament and the European Council.
Assesses the environmental impacts of crop residue management to inform advanced biofuel policy in Europe.
The modifications required by US regulators to VW diesel engines designed to cheat emissions tests are more stringent and more effective than in Europe.
A statistical portrait of passenger car, light commercial, and heavy-duty vehicle fleets in the European Union from 2001 to 2016, with emphasis on vehicle technologies, fuel consumption, and emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants.
A consultant report assessing the potential contribution of CO2-based synthetic fuels, including power-to-liquids, to climate mitigation goals in Europe.
Survey-based summary of regulatory agencies' programs to monitor and enforce compliance with vehicle emission and fuel consumption standards.
Identifies 20 cities with the highest electric vehicle uptake through 2016 and examines the associated local policies, incentives, and infrastructure that have helped spur electric vehicle sales growth.
This update adds one new data source, for a total of 14, covering 16 years, eight countries, and approximately 1.1 million cars. The analysis shows that, in the EU, the gap between official and real-world CO2 emission values continues to grow—from 9% in 2001 to 42% in 2016.
Investigates the gap between real-world and official CO2 emission values in the four largest vehicle markets in the world: China, the EU, Japan, and the United States. The analysis shows that the gap has increased in all markets since 2001.
A synopsis of key findings from previous ICCT studies relevant to a 2025–2030 standard in the EU, including technology potential and associated compliance cost, the role of electrified vehicles, and the switch to a new emissions testing procedure.
Addresses the opportunities for facilitating, and the barriers to financing, the transition to soot-free urban bus fleets in 20 megacities.
Finds that for cars, the cost for meeting a 2025 target value of 70 g/km (as measured in the New European Driving Cycle - NEDC) is between 250 and 500 euros higher than would be the case in a footprint-based CO2 target system.
Provides a synthesis of information regarding the global development of hydrogen fueling infrastructure to power fuel cell vehicles. Compiles research on hydrogen infrastructure deployment, fuel pathways, and planning based on developments in the prominent fuel cell vehicle growth markets around the world.
Assesses charging infrastructure deployment practices, challenges, and emerging best practices in major electric vehicle markets. Statistically analyzes the relationship between public charging and electric vehicle uptake at the metropolitan area level to better discern local infrastructure variation, practices, and circumstances.