Publications: Fuels


Ramping up HEFA+ deployment in aviation would likely create competition for feedstocks between aviation and renewable diesel in the road sector. It could also result in indirect land-use change from the increased use of food crops to create renewable diesel and HEFA+, thereby undermining the climate benefits of AJF deployment. 


A summary of Canada’s proposed federal clean fuel standard structure based on proposals from Environment and Climate Change Canada and the potential impacts of not addressing indirect land-use change.


Evaluates the costs and benefits of using contracts for difference (CfDs) to support the production of bio-CNG from dairy farms in California.


Reviews evidence on the environmental risks of growing lignocellulosic energy crops for biofuel production and policy ideas to address them.


Finds that ILUC emissions from energy cropping are highly sensitive to assumptions of the composition of marginal lands and suggests that additional sustainability safeguards may be necessary for energy cropping in order to ensure that it only occurs on low-carbon stock land.


Assesses the environmental impacts of crop residue management to inform advanced biofuel policy in Europe.


A consultant report assessing the potential contribution of CO2-based synthetic fuels, including power-to-liquids, to climate mitigation goals in Europe.


An assessment of the market impacts and full lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from incentivizing the use of molasses for biofuel production in the EU.


An analysis of advanced biofuel policies and recommendations for improving the effectiveness of policy support for emerging low carbon fuel technologies.


Assesses the indirect greenhouse gas emissions of diverting waste and residual materials to biofuel production.


Reveals that the efforts made by multiple Transport Task Group (TTG) countries to promote and support policies and programs—including stringent tailpipe emissions standards, fuel economy standards, low sulfur fuels, and green freight programs—are in good alignment with the long-term perspective and pathways of the Transport Task Group defined in the G20 Energy Efficiency Leading Programme.


Examines the link between soybean and rapeseed biodiesel and palm oil in light of a new study on substitution effects.


Evaluates the trajectory of GHG emissions from international aviation in the U.S. and Canada as well as the possible GHG reductions that could be made from deployment of alternative jet fuels (AJFs) within the framework of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).


Evaluates the GHG savings that could be achieved through key policy design changes to the transport target in the European Commission’s 2030 Renewable Energy Directive proposal.

Evaluates the potential for alternative jet fuels (AJFs) to decarbonize the aviation sector and the risks associated with those fuels’ sustainability, costs and barriers to commercialization. 

Assesses the market linkages between oils and fats commonly used as biodiesel and renewable diesel feedstocks.


Characterizes the climate and health benefits of adopting world-class standards for new vehicle efficiency/CO2 and conventional pollutant emissions in all members of the G20 Transport Task Group.


Develops a cost-benefit analysis to compare the impact of three separate policies to spur the additional production of ultralow-carbon fuels in California: a contract-for difference price guarantee, a per-gallon subsidy, and upfront capital grants. Uses a cashflow model to estimate the amount of new production of qualifying fuels in California from 2020 to 2030 and the cost per gallon for each policy.


Summarizes the European Commission's (EC) formal proposal to the EU Council and the European Parliament to recast Renewable Energy Directive (RED) 2009/28/EC2, which will expire at the end of 2020. 


Presents a global strategy to reduce fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon emissions from the global fleet of on-road diesel vehicles by identifying 36 countries for immediate action.