Examines the cost of alternate marine fuels and presents a pathway for replacing heavy fuel oil in the Arctic.
Merchant vessels have become a non-negligible source of NOx emissions, and if left unchecked, will become a prominent problem in the near future.
Analysis of how short-term actions, including improving energy efficiency for new and existing ships, along with introducing low-carbon fuels, can help achieve the IMO GHG target
Analysis of the emissions reduction potential of four Emission Control Area delineation scenarios.
Discusses the potential of zero-emission technologies to reduce emissions from non-road transport, including aviation, maritime, off-road, and rail.
Provides an overview of this strategy, which represents the first global climate framework for shipping, and includes quantitative GHG reduction targets through 2050 as well as a list of candidate short-, mid-, and long-term policy measures to help achieve these targets.
An updated global inventory of black carbon emissions from the global shipping sector with several recommendations on how to reduce black carbon emissions from ships.
Describes trends in global ship activity and emissions for the years 2013 to 2015 and finds that emissions generally increased over this period, with efficiency improvements more than offset by increases in activity.
Compiles a high-resolution ship emissions inventory in the Greater Pearl River Delta (GPRD), a heavily populated and prosperous region with heavy ship traffic. Because this traffic contributes to poor local air quality, the Chinese government has identified the GPRD region as a key target for steps to control emissions from ships.
Estimates heavy fuel oil (HFO) use, HFO carriage, the use and carriage of other fuels, BC emissions, and emissions of other air and climate pollutants in the Arctic for the year 2015, with projections to 2020 and 2025.
Compares the economic and environmental tradeoffs of switching from HFO to two alternative fuels, distillate fuel and liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the IMO Arctic, as defined in the IMO Polar Code.
On August 30, 2016, China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) jointly released the first-ever national emission standards for marine engines used in domestic shipping in China. Phase I standards will take effect on July 1, 2018, and stricter Phase II standards will take effect on July 1, 2021.
Measures marine BC emissions in the lab and onboard two container ships, one with a modern Tier II main engine and another with an older Tier 0 engine outfitted with an exhaust gas cleaning system (EGCS).
MEPC’s 70th session will consider two topics that may greatly reduce the amount of HFO used in the Arctic: a global marine fuel sulfur cap of 0.5% (currently it is 3.5%), and whether or not HFO use in the Arctic should be formally placed on the MEPC agenda. This paper provides key information needed to evaluate the potential risks HFO has to the Arctic environment.
Summarizes the specific actions to be implemented in the three key ECZs and compares them to standard emission control areas (ECAs) designated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
Oil prices will be lower in the future if low-carbon transport technologies are mass deployed, as these technologies will drive a significant reduction in global demand for oil.
Evaluates the potential air-quality benefits of using shore-based electric generating facilities, as opposed to a ship's own engines, to supply power for operations (such as loading and unloading) while a ship lies berthed in port.
Investigates the contribution of black carbon from shipping to the global diesel black carbon inventory — 8% to 13% in 2010, a proportion that is not expected to decline under current and planned IMO policies.
Presents an emissions inventory based on scenarios for growth in marine vessel traffic in the U.S. Arctic in 2025. At current fuel sulfur levels, pollutant emissions from ships in the region could increase 150%–600%.
An assessment of long-term prospects for increasing the energy efficiency of tanker ships used to transport liquified natural gas, based on characteristics of the 2011 in-use LNG carrier fleet and global satellite data on ship movements.