The ICCT commissioned the German engineering services provider FEV to carry out detailed computer simulations and bottom-up "tear-down" cost estimates for individual technologies and technology packages that can help to reduce CO2 emissions of European passenger cars and vans in the 2025 timeframe. This report provides the results of FEV's analysis.
For the project, FEV studied passenger car and light commercial vehicle performance until 2025, simulating drive cycles with different powertrain technologies and assessing emission compliance, fuel consumption, and costs for various technology combinations. Simulation tools includes proprietary models for the longitudinal simulations of powertrains and emissions.
The ICCT combined the CO2 and technology cost data from FEV's study with supplemental data on the cost-benefit effects of improvements in road-load reduction, indirect costs and learning out to 2030, type-approval test procedure flexibilities and performance-based adjustments, off-cycle technologies, and electric vehicles, to estimate compliance costs for potential EU CO2 standards in 2025–2030. A detailed report of that analysis can be found here. See here for a brief summary.