Provides an overview of this strategy, which represents the first global climate framework for shipping, and includes quantitative GHG reduction targets through 2050 as well as a list of candidate short-, mid-, and long-term policy measures to help achieve these targets.
Reviews the impact of mid-level biodiesel blends on materials and emissions in conventional diesel vehicles in the Indonesian context.
Focuses on the new energy passenger vehicle market in China's cities, evaluates the implementation and effectiveness of local incentive policies, and analyzes the potential of future sustainability.
Analyzes the Canadian vehicle manufacturing market and sales patterns to illuminate the possible impacts if Canada weakens its greenhouse gas emission standards in order to align with the U.S. federal government or maintains its existing standards and aligns with California and, most likely, 13 other U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
Following a similar move by Beijing, 27 cities in China implemented stringent new vehicle fuel standards in October 2017 as a step toward reducing air pollution in heavily populated areas. These cities put the China VI fuel requirements into effect about 15 months before the national deadline and applied the new fuel standard to non-road equipment ahead of the national schedule.
Experimentally investigates the fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and aerodynamic performance of three European heavy-duty vehicles through chassis dynamometer and track testing.
An analysis of the state of autonomous trucking technology, including the benefits and drawbacks of adoption, and the impact on fuel use and emissions in the on-road freight sector.
Analyzes the U.S. off-cycle credit program within the 2025 greenhouse gas and fuel economy regulations, including how the off-cycle credits were used in model years 2015 and 2016, trends among automakers with the most credits, and the impact of greater credit use through 2025.
Ramping up HEFA+ deployment in aviation would likely create competition for feedstocks between aviation and renewable diesel in the road sector. It could also result in indirect land-use change from the increased use of food crops to create renewable diesel and HEFA+, thereby undermining the climate benefits of AJF deployment.
In the aftermath of Dieselgate, diesel car sales shares are falling in Europe. But diesel's decline does not put EU CO2 targets out of reach. Other technologies offer more compelling and cost-effective pathways to reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars.
A summary of Canada’s proposed federal clean fuel standard structure based on proposals from Environment and Climate Change Canada and the potential impacts of not addressing indirect land-use change.
Evaluates the costs and benefits of using contracts for difference (CfDs) to support the production of bio-CNG from dairy farms in California.
Analyzes the model structure, simulation flow, and limitations of the EU’s regulatory tool for the simulation of heavy-duty vehicle fuel consumption. Compares the regulatory vehicle simulation tools used in the EU and the United States.
Provides a brief overview of the energy cost per mile for a vehicle using gasoline versus the energy cost per mile using electricity in the United States.
Reviews evidence on the environmental risks of growing lignocellulosic energy crops for biofuel production and policy ideas to address them.
Starting January 1, 2021, all new HDVs sold in Mexico will be required to meet the best-in-class, filter-based standards, equivalent to those currently in place in the rest of North America and the European Union. The Euro VI and US 2010 options are introduced in 2019, along with much weaker Euro V and US 2007 options, which are allowed over a two-year transition period. The soot-free standards become the only regulatory option on January 1, 2021.
This case study shows that the actual CO2 reductions of 18.6% achieved in the 2018 Camry exceed the 17.7% reductions predicted by EPA models. This confirms that the OMEGA and LPM models accurately predict both new technology benefits and synergies between technologies. It also suggests that other studies contradicting EPA model outcomes are inaccurate and underpredict future technology benefits.
Effectively enforced vehicle CO2 performance standards are at the core of any effort to realize lower-carbon transport. EU member states should implement supporting policy measures such as emissions-based vehicle taxes, mandates for electric vehicles, and emissions-based road pricing.
Collects and analyzes real-world emissions data from multiple sources in China. The data include emissions of NOx, CO, and total hydrocarbons. from 55 LDVs and 67 HDVs tested using PEMS. The vehicle sample covers a wide range of emissions standards, from China 0 to China 5/V, and vehicle types.
Reviews recent research regarding greenhouse gas emissions from the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. We analyze this research in the overall context of life-cycle emissions of electric cars as compared to conventional internal combustion vehicles in Europe. Finally, we discuss the primary drivers of battery manufacturing emissions and how these emissions could be further mitigated in the future.