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Evaluates the costs and benefits of using contracts for difference (CfDs) to support the production of bio-CNG from dairy farms in California.

This case study shows that the actual CO2 reductions of 18.6% achieved in the 2018 Camry exceed the 17.7% reductions predicted by EPA models. This confirms that the OMEGA and LPM models accurately predict both new technology benefits and synergies between technologies. It also suggests that other studies contradicting EPA model outcomes are inaccurate and underpredict future technology benefits.

Explores some of the compliance pathways available to heavy duty vehicle manufacturers. Specifically, this paper develops hypothetical technology packages for certain types of tractor trucks, vocational vehicles, and trailers using distinct technology strategies compares cost-effectiveness.


Reviews the costs and benefits that would result from implementing the China 6 light-duty vehicle emission standard in Guangdong Province with a recommended timeline earlier than the national plan (2023). The authors conclude that early adoption (in mid-2018) of the China 6b standard will help Guangdong address its most prominent air quality and human health concerns cost-effectively, in both the short and long term.

Publication: Working paper

Diesel engines, aftertreatment, and emissions control have developed since 2012, improving diesel vehicles’ cost-effectiveness, particularly for larger passenger vehicle classes.

Publication: Working paper

Evaluates options for integrating electric vehicles into U.S. and European efficiency regulations based on cost-effectiveness and emission-reduction implications.

Publication: Working paper

Estimates health benefits and technology upgrade costs of the proposed standard and implementation timetable focusing mainly on nationwide impacts, but also separately analyzes China’s three key regions: the so-called Jing-Jin-Ji region, the Yangtze River delta region, and Guangdong province.

Publication: Working paper

Evaluates the GHG savings that could be achieved through key policy design changes to the transport target in the European Commission’s 2030 Renewable Energy Directive proposal.

Publication: Working paper

Compares the economic and environmental tradeoffs of switching from HFO to two alternative fuels, distillate fuel and liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the IMO Arctic, as defined in the IMO Polar Code.

Publication: Working paper

Reviews the global practices on electric vehicle consumer awareness activities, summarizing the projects, initiatives, and exemplary practices among national and subnational governments in consumer education, awareness, and outreach.

Publication: Working paper

Analyzes the new trailer sales market and also interviewed a variety of experts from the trucking industry in Canada in order to estimate typical ownership cycles and activity rates for various types of trailers.

Publication: Working paper

Develops a cost-benefit analysis to compare the impact of three separate policies to spur the additional production of ultralow-carbon fuels in California: a contract-for difference price guarantee, a per-gallon subsidy, and upfront capital grants. Uses a cashflow model to estimate the amount of new production of qualifying fuels in California from 2020 to 2030 and the cost per gallon for each policy.

Publication: Working paper

Analyzes the various fiscal incentive mechanisms available in India at a national and state level for hybrid and electric vehicles, and evaluates the relative contribution of such incentives in making these technologies cost-competitive in the Indian market, particularly in context to the central government’s flagship scheme, Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid and) Electric Vehicles (FAME).

Publication: Working paper