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Effectively enforced vehicle CO2 performance standards are at the core of any effort to realize lower-carbon transport. EU member states should implement supporting policy measures such as emissions-based vehicle taxes, mandates for electric vehicles, and emissions-based road pricing.

Reviews recent research regarding greenhouse gas emissions from the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. We analyze this research in the overall context of life-cycle emissions of electric cars as compared to conventional internal combustion vehicles in Europe. Finally, we discuss the primary drivers of battery manufacturing emissions and how these emissions could be further mitigated in the future.

Der derzeitige Rückgangs des Dieselanteils zieht keine negativen Auswirkungen auf die Erreichbarkeit der Klimaschutzziele nach sich. Vor diesem Hintergrund sollte ein Festhalten an der derzeitigen Subvention von Dieselkraftstoff für Pkw kritisch hinterfragt und eine Angleichung der Steuersätze für Diesel und Benzin in Erwägung gezogen werden.


Reviews the political science, regulatory, and economics literature to illuminate the international competitiveness impacts of motor vehicle emission standards.

Publication: Briefing

Evaluates the effect of Euro VI-equivalent emissions standards on bus system costs in Brazil.

Publication: Briefing

Highlights important innovations and trends in vehicle design technology and lightweighting, many of which were not considered when the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized, but promise to be quite cost-effective.

Publication: Briefing

Reviews the structure of EPA’s emission recall program for light-duty vehicles and trucks (LDV and LDT) and its effectiveness over time and also explains the recall authority, procedures, and coordination among offices.

Publication: Briefing

Identifies key differences in the regulations governing certification of NOx emissions from diesel cars (Euro 6) and trucks (Euro VI) that help explain differences in their real-world emissions performance. Ultimately, an examination of the HDV regulation reveals insights that could be used to improve the LDV regulation.

Publication: Briefing

This technical brief highlights important innovations and trends in downsized and turbocharged gasoline engines, several of which were not considered when the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized, but promise to be quite cost-effective.

Publication: Briefing

A concise overview of the EU's vehicle CO2 emission reduction requirements, targets for 2025–2030 that are coming under consideration, and current best projections of vehicle-specific CO2 reduction technology potential and costs in that time frame.

Publication: Briefing

Highlights developments in technologies that contribute to vehicle fuel efficiency by improving control of heat in the powertrain and the passenger cabin. Few thermal management technologies were explicitly incorporated into the technology projections for the US 2025 CAFE standards.

Publication: Briefing

One in a series of technical briefs highlighting important innovations and trends in transmissions, which, overall, are similar to efficiency benefits and cost projections made at the time the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized.

Publication: Briefing

Comprehensive technical overview of the Euro 6/VI vehicle emissions standards, looking at the historical context of the European regulations and considering what is likely to come next.

Publication: Briefing