Summarizes the implications of the current mass-based CO2 targets in the EU and outlines three alternatives: do away with the utility parameter altogether; use vehicle footprint instead of mass; keep the mass utility parameter, but reduce its impact on manufacturers’ CO2 targets.
Summary of technologies and policies to reduce direct emissions from cars, trucks, and buses, drawing on examples of other megacities' policy initiatives in the areas of clean fuels, new vehicle emission standards, and in-use vehicle programs.
Expands on the European Environment Agency's recently published provisional data for CO2 emissions from passenger cars sold in the EU in 2013, which shows that average emissions fell to 127 g/km, below the 2015 target.
Brazil has moved to control vehicle emissions, and early deaths from exposure to vehicle emissions are projected to decline by 50 percent in 2030. But if Brazil were to adopt best-practice controls on vehicles and fuels, it could cut health impacts by an additional two-thirds.
Without new limits on vehicle emissions and fuel sulfur content, early deaths from emissions of fine particles in India's urban areas will nearly quadruple by 2030. With such limits, India could reduce early deaths by 84 percent compared to business-as-usual in the same period.