Summarizes the implications of the current mass-based CO2 targets in the EU and outlines three alternatives: do away with the utility parameter altogether; use vehicle footprint instead of mass; keep the mass utility parameter, but reduce its impact on manufacturers’ CO2 targets.
Summarizes how state and local governments are supporting the development of local electric-vehicle markets in the 25 most-populous U.S. metropolitan areas. Provides a quantitative estimate of the effective cost of owning and operating battery electric vehicles in those 25 cities.
Proposes a rapid, comprehensive policy response not only to deal with defeat devices but also to identify vehicle models with high real-world emissions relative to test-cycle performance and improve current compliance and enforcement programs.
Technical summary for policy makers of the status of hybrid vehicle development in the United States. First in a series of technical briefing papers on trends in energy efficiency of passenger vehicles in the U.S.
Summary based on the provisional data recently released by the European Environment Agency. All manufacturers have achieved their 2015 targets, with average emissions of 123.3 g/km in 2014, a decrease of 3% compared to 2013.
HDVs conforming to Euro IV and V standards frequently show poor real-world NOx emissions performance. Evidence indicates that new certification protocols in Euro VI resolve this problem, and Euro VI-compliant HDV NOx emissions meet expectations.
Summary of technologies and policies to reduce direct emissions from cars, trucks, and buses, drawing on examples of other megacities' policy initiatives in the areas of clean fuels, new vehicle emission standards, and in-use vehicle programs.