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An overview of CO2 emissions reduction, fuel and technology trends, and market share of new passenger cars in the European Union.

This briefing summarizes the eco-innovation provision, investigates the types and market uptake of approved eco-innovations, and discusses how regulatory developments could affect eco-innovations in the future.

This briefing compares the fleet characteristics and fuel-efficiency technology deployment in China, Europe and the U.S. from 2010 to 2014. In addition, the briefing evaluates the response of the passenger vehicle market in China to the country’s fuel efficiency standards.


Reviews the political science, regulatory, and economics literature to illuminate the international competitiveness impacts of motor vehicle emission standards.

Publication: Briefing

Evaluates the effect of Euro VI-equivalent emissions standards on bus system costs in Brazil.

Publication: Briefing

Highlights important innovations and trends in vehicle design technology and lightweighting, many of which were not considered when the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized, but promise to be quite cost-effective.

Publication: Briefing

Reviews the structure of EPA’s emission recall program for light-duty vehicles and trucks (LDV and LDT) and its effectiveness over time and also explains the recall authority, procedures, and coordination among offices.

Publication: Briefing

Identifies key differences in the regulations governing certification of NOx emissions from diesel cars (Euro 6) and trucks (Euro VI) that help explain differences in their real-world emissions performance. Ultimately, an examination of the HDV regulation reveals insights that could be used to improve the LDV regulation.

Publication: Briefing

This technical brief highlights important innovations and trends in downsized and turbocharged gasoline engines, several of which were not considered when the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized, but promise to be quite cost-effective.

Publication: Briefing

A concise overview of the EU's vehicle CO2 emission reduction requirements, targets for 2025–2030 that are coming under consideration, and current best projections of vehicle-specific CO2 reduction technology potential and costs in that time frame.

Publication: Briefing

Highlights developments in technologies that contribute to vehicle fuel efficiency by improving control of heat in the powertrain and the passenger cabin. Few thermal management technologies were explicitly incorporated into the technology projections for the US 2025 CAFE standards.

Publication: Briefing

One in a series of technical briefs highlighting important innovations and trends in transmissions, which, overall, are similar to efficiency benefits and cost projections made at the time the 2025 CAFE standards were finalized.

Publication: Briefing

Comprehensive technical overview of the Euro 6/VI vehicle emissions standards, looking at the historical context of the European regulations and considering what is likely to come next.

Publication: Briefing