India

India

Air pollution, particularly in the form of particulate matter, is a serious challenge in India, and transportation is a significant factor in the nation’s air quality problems. According to the 2017 Global Burden of Disease, some 1.1 million people in India die prematurely each year from diseases directly related to air pollution, making it the fifth leading cause of death in the country. Transportation sources account for approximately a third of PM pollution in India, and a somewhat higher proportion of nitrogen oxides, another set of compounds harmful to human health. Because its vehicle fleet is small relative to its large population, India has very low per capita transportation emissions. But that fleet is growing rapidly: total vehicle sales (including motorcycles) increased from about 10 million in 2007 to over 21 million in 2016, and the total number of vehicles on the road is expected to nearly double to about 200 million by 2030.

Featured

About the program

Air pollution, particularly in the form of particulate matter, is a serious challenge in India, and transportation is a significant factor in the nation’s air quality problems. According to the 2017 Global Burden of Disease, some 1.1 million people in India die prematurely each year from diseases directly related to air pollution, making it the fifth leading cause of death in the country. Transportation sources account for approximately a third of PM pollution in India, and a somewhat higher proportion of nitrogen oxides, another set of compounds harmful to human health. Because its vehicle fleet is small relative to its large population, India has very low per capita transportation emissions. But that fleet is growing rapidly: total vehicle sales (including motorcycles) increased from about 10 million in 2007 to over 21 million in 2016, and the total number of vehicles on the road is expected to nearly double to about 200 million by 2030.

Vehicle emission standards are making progress in India. In 2016, India adopted Euro 6/VI equivalent standards that will go into effect in 2020. While this is a major step forward, much remains to be done to mitigate the harmful effects of vehicular air pollution.

India’s Bureau of Energy Efficiency has finalized passenger car fuel efficiency standards that would result in an average fuel consumption of 20 km/L for the new vehicle fleet by 2022. This standard opens the door to energy-efficiency standards for two- and three-wheelers, light-commercial vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles, which account for a greater proportion of fuel consumption in India than passenger vehicles.

[India] Challenges ahead and what lessons India can learn from other parts of the world

Anup Bandivadekar, ICCT's India program lead, reflects on the challenges that lie ahead for India, and the lessons it may take from other regions' experiences in formulating effective policies to promote clean vehicles and fuels.

Recent publications

Compliance with India’s first fuel-consumption standards for new passenger cars (FY 2017–2018)

Evaluation of the compliance of manufacturer groups in India with fiscal year 2017–2018 fuel consumption standards and their readiness to meet more stringent requirements

2018.09.25 | Briefing
Costs of emission reduction technologies for diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment

Evaluates the costs incurred by manufacturers of diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment for emission reduction technologies needed to comply with increasingly stringent standards.

2018.07.11 | Working paper
India Bharat Stage IV and V non-road emission standards

Under the Bharat Stage VI and V standards, India will achieve significant reductions of NOx and PM from agricultural tractors and construction equipment.

2018.06.04 | Policy update
See all publications

Staff blog

The hardest part of cellulosic biofuels in India might be collecting the rice straw

A new policy in India aims promote cellulosic biofuel production from sustainable feedstocks, something no other country has managed to do. Can the country succeed?

Staff