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Policy and Environmental Implications of Using HEFA+ for Aviation

The aviation sector must confront rapidly increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ambitious decarbonization targets. Alternative jet fuels (AJFs) could be route to decarbonizing this sector,...
Published 2018.03.21: Publication

An overview of Canada's proposed clean fuel standard

This policy update provides a summary of Canada’s proposed federal clean fuel standard (CFS) policy structure based on proposals and the framework document from Environment and Climate Change Canada...
Published 2018.03.13: Publication

Don't throw out California's ILUC factors yet

Soy biodiesel is generally understood to have high indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions.  For example, California assigns an ILUC factor of 29 gCO2e/MJ to biodiesel in its Low Carbon Fuel...Newer is not always better. California’s ILUC analysis relies on stronger evidence on palm oil expansion than a new study from Argonne National Laboratory.
Published 2018.03.09: Blog Post

Using a Contracts for Difference Program to Support Dairy Biogas in California

As part of its overall climate strategy, California is seeking reductions in short-lived climate pollutants, such as methane, through the implementation of the 2016 Senate Bill 1383. This California...
Published 2018.03.07: Publication

Sustainability challenges of lignocellulosic bioenergy crops

This briefing paper reviews evidence on the environmental risks of growing lignocellulosic energy crops for biofuel production. The sustainability of energy crops such as Miscanthus, switchgrass, and...
Published 2018.02.26: Publication

A comparison of induced land-use change emissions estimates from energy crops

The introduction of the first generation of biofuels made from food crops has been controversial largely due to concerns over competition for land with food crops, thus raising global crop prices and...
Published 2018.02.06: Publication

Chelsea Baldino

Published 2018.01.30: Profile

Review of the impact of crop residue management on soil organic carbon in Europe

Crop residues, including wheat straw and corn stover, are a feedstock for the production of cellulosic biofuel that could contribute to meeting advanced biofuel targets and decarbonization goals for...
Published 2017.12.15: Publication

The hidden cost of Indonesia’s biodiesel mandate to consumers

Indonesian drivers probably don’t realize they are paying more at the pump because of their country’s biodiesel mandate, which sets ambitious targets for the blending of biodiesel in diesel fuel....Indonesian drivers probably don’t realize they are paying more at the pump because of their country’s biodiesel mandate, which sets ambitious targets for the blending of biodiesel in diesel fuel....
Published 2017.11.15: Blog Post

CO2-based synthetic fuel: Assessment of potential European capacity and environmental performance

CO2-based synthetic fuels are of increasing interest as a potential strategy to reduce petroleum consumption as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. The most well-...
Published 2017.11.14: Publication

Greenwashing food-based biofuels in Europe

The term “Highly sustainable crop based biofuels” (HSCBBs) sounds environmentally friendly. It sounds like the kind of low-carbon biofuel that avoids the food vs. fuel debate. But unfortunately, the...The food-based biofuel cap is in the Commission’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) proposal for a reason, and effectively removing it through the exception for HSCCBs can hardly be called “...
Published 2017.10.30: Blog Post

The EU needs new environmental safeguard measures for advanced biofuels

Late last year, on November 30, 2016, the European Commission (EC), proposed requiring fuel suppliers to have a 3.6% minimum share of transportation fuels from a preapproved list of non-food...The EC’s proposed mandate can indeed be an important step toward advanced biofuels, but it can and should do more to avoid unintended consequences. Improving the sustainability criteria defined in...
Published 2017.10.03: Blog Post

Indirect greenhouse gas emissions of molasses ethanol in the European Union

The European Commission has proposed adding molasses to a list of advanced biofuel feedstocks eligible for support in the 2021-2030 timeframe under the recast Renewable Energy Directive. Final stage...
Published 2017.09.27: Publication

Effective policy design for promoting investment in advanced alternative fuels

Low-carbon fuels produced from non-food feedstocks have the potential to deliver deep greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions in transport fuels, but their commercialization has been slow despite a decade of...
Published 2017.09.21: Publication

Waste not want not: Understanding the greenhouse gas implications of diverting waste and residual materials to biofuel production

It has become generally accepted that biofuels produced from food commodity crops cause indirect land use change (ILUC) when increased demand for those crops results in an increase in global...
Published 2017.08.24: Publication

Status of policies for clean vehicles and fuels in select G20 countries

Realizing the immense opportunity to promote energy efficiency in their economies, G20 economies adopted an Energy Efficiency Action Plan that identified six focus areas for collaborative activity,...
Published 2017.08.15: Publication

How rapeseed and soy biodiesel drive oil palm expansion

The role of food-based biofuels in climate mitigation policies such has long been controversial due to their impact on food prices and land use. Even when biofuel feedstocks are grown on existing...
Published 2017.07.27: Publication

Where does the U.S. stand on biofuels now?

The Trump administration has voiced general support for the country’s Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), but how its implementation of the RFS would differ from previous administrations has so far...The messages on cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and latitude in interpreting the statute may not be entirely consistent, but one thing is clear: U.S. EPA is now intent on dialing down RFS obligations...
Published 2017.07.11: Blog Post

Alternative jet fuel development and deployment in North America

International aviation GHG emissions from airline carriers based in Canada and the United States increased from 36.2 to 60.2 million tonnes (MtCO2e) per year from 1990 through 2015—and they are...
Published 2017.05.30: Publication

Potential greenhouse gas savings from a 2030 greenhouse gas reduction target with indirect emissions accounting for the European Union

The European Commission’s proposal for a recast Renewable Energy Directive for the period 2021-2030 (RED II) includes a 6.8% target for renewable energy to be used in transport. This target can be...
Published 2017.05.05: Publication