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Will GDI engines mean higher particulate emissions? Thanks to already-enacted Tier 3 standards, no

Benjamin Hulac had an interesting story on gasoline particulate emissions for ClimateWire [paywall] on October 3. He was reporting on research by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that found...Concerns that engines using gasoline direct injection produce higher particulate emissions overlook two things: the engineering solutions to the problem are already known, and EPA's Tier 3 regulation...
Published 2014.10.22: Blog Post

U.S. Tier 3 vehicle emissions and fuel quality standards, final rule

On 3 March 2014, U.S. EPA finalized new emission standards for vehicles and fuels, commonly referred to as Tier 3 emission standards (Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0135). Once the vehicle and fuel...
Published 2014.03.11: Publication