“These findings show that CO2 emissions from the new car fleet in Europe can be reduced even if the market share of diesel cars would continue to fall in future years. In fact, a transition from diesel cars to advanced gasoline technology and either hybrid or plug-in vehicles, including gasoline plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles, would reduce the net costs of complying with a hypothetical 70 g/km CO2 standard for 2025.”

Shifting Gears

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Recent Publications

Provides an overview of this strategy, which represents the first global climate framework for shipping, and includes quantitative GHG reduction targets through 2050 as well as a list of candidate short-, mid-, and long-term policy measures to...

2018.04.23 | Policy update

Reviews the impact of mid-level biodiesel blends on materials and emissions in conventional diesel vehicles in the Indonesian context.

2018.04.17 | Working paper

Focuses on the new energy passenger vehicle market in China's cities, evaluates the implementation and effectiveness of local incentive policies, and analyzes the potential of future sustainability.

2018.04.12 | White paper

Staff Blog


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  • Did the Delta and United exit from the Persian Gulf have any effect on the market’s fuel efficiency?

    With the exit of Delta and United from the Persian Gulf market, one would expect that there was some impact on the market’s average fuel efficiency. But, is it due to a less diverse mix of aircraft, or something else?

  • Is it finally time to be bullish on IMO’s climate policy?

    Progress in establishing a cap on GHG emissions from shipping has been slow going. But, last week, the IMO finally passed a resolution on the first global climate framework for international shipping.

  • A no-regrets option: What discussions in the European Parliament spotlight about a light-duty 2025–2030 CO2 standard for the EU

    Although there is broad agreement on what steps need to be taken regarding CO2 standards for new passenger cars and vans, the regulatory proposal from the European Commission is far from actually taking them.

  • Canada lags the United States in climate accounting of biofuels

    Canada's Clean Fuel Standard aims to reduce GHG emissions by 30 million tonnes of CO2e annually by 2030. However, by ignoring emissions from indirect land-use change, the CFS could hit its target on paper but will fall far short in real GHG reductions, potentially wiping out total savings from Canada’s 2025 vehicle greenhouse gas standards.

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