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Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998. Sets EU-wide standards for petrol and diesel used in cars, trucks and other vehicles to protect human health and the environment. Primary sources on-line: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31998L0070:E... and http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/fuel.htm
An important question when estimating the indirect land use change emissions from biodiesel feedstocks is whether vegetable oils replace each other in the market, so that increased demand for one may result in increased production of another. In this paper, it is shown that the evidence from trade and agricultural production data strongly suggests that demand for rapeseed biodiesel in the EU will have driven expansion of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia, as predicted in IFPRI's iLUC modeling with MIRAGE (Laborde, 2011).
Summarizes the final version of this proposal, which differs significantly from a draft leaked in September 2012.
This study shows that without modification the existing EU biofuels mandate is unlikely to deliver significant carbon benefits. If, however, iLUC factors are included in the policy in future, the policy would be likely to achieve the targeted 50% carbon reductions.
Assessment using regionally specific least-cost animal diet modeling of feed displacement ratios for US corn dried distillers' grains and solubles (DDGS).
Study using satellite mapping data of historical and projected rates at which oil palm plantations in Indonesia and Malaysia have expanded and will expand onto peat soils
Bioethanol production results in a co-product, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), that is used in the animal feed industry. It has been generally assumed that DDGS will replace both soya and cereals in animal feeds and this assumption, together with the ratio ascribed, has been used to predict land use and other factors. In Europe, it has generally been expected that replacing more soya and less cereals would have a beneficial effects on emissions, by reducing the risk of Amazon deforestation. It is therefore important for estimating indirect land use change impacts from biofuels that the correct ratios should be modeled.
The European Renewable Energy and Fuel Quality Directives require the European Commission to propose, based on the best available data, a methodology to control indirect land use change emissions due to biofuels expansion. To support its impact assessment of ILUC policy options, the commission asked the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to update its modeling of ILUC emissions from European biofuel mandates. The new IFPRI-MIRAGE study is an important and detailed contribution to the EU biofuels debate.