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Analysis indicates that that the carbon intensity of the U.S. refining sector is sensitive to both the crude oils input to refineries and the product slate output.
Overview of the US EPA Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. The proposed new standards would be phased in from 2017 and fully implemented by 2025.
Detailed timeline for upgrading nationwide motor fuel quality, to a standard for maximum sulfur content of 10 ppm for both gasoline and diesel.
An important question when estimating the indirect land use change emissions from biodiesel feedstocks is whether vegetable oils replace each other in the market, so that increased demand for one may result in increased production of another. In this paper, it is shown that the evidence from trade and agricultural production data strongly suggests that demand for rapeseed biodiesel in the EU will have driven expansion of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia, as predicted in IFPRI's iLUC modeling with MIRAGE (Laborde, 2011).
此报告关注于中国以及其他新兴市场国家对炼油能力的需求，对应的资本投入需要，以及过渡到超低硫汽油与超低硫柴油以及对汽油柴油进行其它一些改进所需的每升的提炼成本。结果显示，中国全国范围生产含硫量 10ppm 的汽油和柴油的平均增量成本分别为每升0.7美分（0.04人民币）和1.7美分（0.11 人民币）。鉴于许多中国城市的空气污染已经到达警戒水平，而汽车排放污染占了大气污染其中一大部分而且其份额还在继续增加，在全国范围内尽快尽早引入的引入超低硫燃油带来的益处将远远超过这样低廉的成本。
Summarizes the final version of this proposal, which differs significantly from a draft leaked in September 2012.
Results of study of refining capability requirements, corresponding capital investment requirements, and per-liter refining costs to transition to ULSG and ULSD.
A technical and economic analysis of pathways and costs for India to produce ultra-low sulfur fuels.