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Bioethanol production results in a co-product, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), that is used in the animal feed industry. It has been generally assumed that DDGS will replace both soya and cereals in animal feeds and this assumption, together with the ratio ascribed, has been used to predict land use and other factors. In Europe, it has generally been expected that replacing more soya and less cereals would have a beneficial effects on emissions, by reducing the risk of Amazon deforestation. It is therefore important for estimating indirect land use change impacts from biofuels that the correct ratios should be modeled.
Overview of low-carbon fuel related standards in various stages of development and implementation in the U.S., California, Europe, and the UK.