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Presentation to the International Maritime Organization on the definition and measurement of marine black carbon emissions, 30 January 2012.
Based on an assessment of production costs for two GPF designs, we estimate for a 2.0L gasoline engine a cost of $106 for a stand-alone GPF and between $114 and $154 for a four-way catalyst, presented here as a three-way catalyst (TWC) with PM trapping capabilities.
Actions that reduce or eliminate HFC-134a emissions can make an important contribution toward lowering the overall climate impact of the global auto fleet. This paper assesses alternate refrigerant emissions and their climate impacts.