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Analyzes the implications of a growing natural gas vehicle fleet on the emission benefits of the U.S. HDV “Phase 2” greenhouse gas rulemaking, synthesizing data on upstream emissions, vehicle emissions, and efficiency technology.
Summarizes proposed new Phase 2 standards to reduce HDV fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Discusses the use of computer simulation to certify whole-vehicle efficiency of HDVs, and compares tools used to quantify HDV CO2 emissions in the US (GEM v2.0) and EU (VECTO v2.0.3 beta; not yet used in a regulatory context).
Evaluation, based on leading technology effectiveness, technology cost, and fuel price data, of payback periods for the efficiency technologies analyzed in a companion paper on tractor-trailer technology potential.