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Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998. Sets EU-wide standards for petrol and diesel used in cars, trucks and other vehicles to protect human health and the environment. Primary sources on-line: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31998L0070:E... and http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/fuel.htm
Surveys the existing literature on methodologies related to the certification of low ILUC biofuel projects through different measures. It also assesses the potential challenges, risks, and loopholes that could arise from the use of these methodologies.
Based on more than a year of exchanges, this synthesis report presents five recommendations for a 2030 European policy for transport fuels regarding sustainability, carbon-intensity, incentives, competing uses and innovation.
Inventory of the status of Member States’ progress on implementing key elements of Directive 2015/1513 amending the RED and FQD as well as the FQD implementing directive (Directive 2015/652).
Provides information on possible calculation frameworks to estimate and report the life cycle GHG emissions from oil-based transport fuels placed in the EU market.
Presents results of studies on the EU crude oil market and GHG emissions, along with a model for lifecycle analysis of crude extraction and an estimate of carbon intensity of oil supplied to the European Union in 2010.
A detailed but accessible overview of the concept of indirect land use change and the way that ILUC emissions are estimated. Identifies factors that determine the size of ILUC effects when biofuel demand increases and shows how they are handled in the most important models used in the U.S. and EU.
Overview of the political agreement reached by the council in June on the draft of a directive that would amend the fuel quality and renewable energy directives.
New addendum report: National case studies show potential for biofuels from wastes and residues in Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom There is a substantial untapped resource available in Europe of unused cellulosic wastes and residues. The technology exists to convert these biomass resources into advanced biofuels, with the technical potential to substitute up to 16% of European road transport fuel by 2030 while delivering greenhouse gas savings of 60% or more.
Estimates availability of the cellulosic fraction of waste, agricultural residues, and forestry residues, while considering current uses of these materials and environmental impacts.