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A concise overview of the EU's vehicle CO2 emission reduction requirements, targets for 2025–2030 that are coming under consideration, and current best projections of vehicle-specific CO2 reduction technology potential and costs in that time frame.
Presents detailed results and methodology of a study using computer simulation modeling, vehicle tear-down analysis, and additional supplementary data to estimate compliance costs of potential vehicle CO2 emission standards for the European passenger car and light-commercial vehicle fleets in 2025–2030.