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Analyzes and compares new-vehicle type-approval procedures in the EU and U.S. with an eye toward demonstrating how best to align regulatory requirements, customer expectations, and environmental performance.
Examines the effect that tax and other incentives in the EU have had on CO2 emissions, and identifies a clear shift over time toward tax-optimized vehicles.
Proposes a rapid, comprehensive policy response not only to deal with defeat devices but also to identify vehicle models with high real-world emissions relative to test-cycle performance and improve current compliance and enforcement programs.