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Assesses the effect on technology innovation and deployment if mandatory CO2 standards in the EU were replaced by including road transport in the EU Emissions Trading System, as some have recently proposed.
Identifies and quantifies impacts on type-approval values of the EU's anticipated transition from the NEDC to the WLTP. Notably, the effects of the new driving cycle and the new definition of vehicle test masses result in a target of 100 g CO2/km for 2020.
Documents the discrepancy between type-approval and real-world NOx emissions from new diesel passenger cars. On average, on-road NOx emissions from the vehicles tested for this analysis were about seven times higher than the limits set by the Euro 6 standard.