Model scope

Pollutants
(well-to-wheel)
GHGs: CO2, CH4, and N2O
Local air pollutants: NOx, PM10 and PM2.5, BC, CO, HC, SO2, and NMVOC
Modes On-road vehicles, freight and passenger locomotives, passenger aircraft, and freight waterborne vessels (domestic and international)
Fuel types Gasoline, diesel (conventional, low-sulfur), ethanol (grain, sugar, cellulosic), biodiesel (oil-based, ligno-cellulosic), CNG, LPG, hydrogen, electricity, jet fuel, and residual fuel
Vehicle technologies On-road vehicles (conventional,hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, battery electric vehicle), locomotives (diesel-electric, electric), aircraft and waterborne vessels (conventional engines only)
Regions Eleven of the largest vehicle markets (US, EU-28, China, India, Japan, Brazil, Canada, South Korea, Mexico, Australia, and Russia) and five regional aggregations
Time horizon 2000–2050, in five-year increments