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Researchers at the University of Tokyo, led by Dr. Noritaka Mizuno (“oxygen rocking”, earlier post), in collaboration with Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd. are proposing a new sealed rechargeable battery system operating on a redox reaction between an oxide (O2-) and a peroxide (O22-) in the cathode. As described in a paper in the Nature open access journal Scientific Reports, the proposed battery system would have a theoretical specific energy of 2,570 Wh kg-1 (897 mAh g-1, 2.87 V)—about on par with Li-sulfur’s very high theoretical energy density of ~2,600 Wh kg-1 (based on lithium-sulfur redox couple, e.g., earlier post).
The team showed that a cobalt-doped Li2O cathode exhibited a reversible capacity above 190 mAh g-1, a high rate capability, and good cyclability with a superconcentrated lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide electrolyte in acetonitrile. The present specific capacity of the Co-doped Li2O cathode is lower than its theoretical capacity of 556 mAh g−1 (based on the weight of Li2O in the Co-doped Li2O).
Another approach [to the development of high energy density post Li-ion batteries] is a development of a lithium-air (Li-O2) battery by use of atmospheric O2 with a theoretical specific energy of 3400 Wh kg−1 even including the weight of oxygen in the discharged product (Li2O2). However, the actual capacity or the energy is dependent on the pore volumes of the cathode matrices where Li2O2 is formed, the pores are clogged with solids, and the discharge is prohibited by the limitation of the oxygen supply. In addition, there are more serious inherent problems of the open device, suffering from the coexisting moisture and CO2, and safety for the application to electronic vehicles. The main discharge product for Li-O2 batteries is Li2O2 …
The subsequent reduction of Li2O2 has recently been pointed out to take place to form Li2O during the deep discharge … However, there is no report on the repetition of the charge and discharge utilizing the reaction between Li2O (or O2−) and Li2O2 (or O22−). The investigation on LIB cathodes such as LiCoO2 and Li-rich layered oxides shows not only the charge compensation mechanism involving transition metal ions but also some contribution of the reversible redox reaction of oxygen atoms.
Therefore, we have reached an idea that Li2O2 would act as a 3 V-level cathode utilizing the redox couple of oxide (O2−)/peroxide (O22−). In addition, a certain electrode catalyst or mediator would selectively accelerate the thermodynamically more favorable backward reaction.—Okuoka et al.
The team evaluated a number of different ratios of cobalt to lithium doping, and found that the best charge-discharge performance came with Co-doped Li2O (Co/Li = 0.1). Rhodium and Iridium (Rh2O3 and IrO2 instead of Co3O4 could also be used.)
The researchers built a cell consisting of the Co-doped Li2O cathode, a Li metal anode, and a superconcentrated 4 M LiFSA electrolyte for testing electrochemical performance. The charge voltage gradually increased and reached approximately 3.2 V above 150 mAh g−1. The discharge and charge curves from the first to 15th cycle remained almost unchanged, with the constant coulombic efficiency of around 96% at 45 mA g−1.
First discharge capacity reached 195 mAh g−1 at a low current density of 13.5 mA g−1 and the capacity of 133 mAh g−1 can be discharged even at a very high current density of 1080 mA g−1 at which the capacity of 200 mAh g−1 can be charged in 11 minutes.
The team suggested that investigating the roles of cobalt in the redox reaction between the oxide and peroxide and the state of the O22− species in the Co-doped Li2O would lead to the improvement of the specific capacity.
This research was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through its “Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program)”.
Shin-ichi Okuoka, Yoshiyuki Ogasawara, Yosuke Suga, Mitsuhiro Hibino, Tetsuichi Kudo, Hironobu Ono, Koji Yonehara, Yasutaka Sumida, Yuki Yamada, Atsuo Yamada, Masaharu Oshima, Eita Tochigi, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara & Noritaka Mizuno (2014) “A New Sealed Lithium-Peroxide Battery with a Co-Doped Li2O Cathode in a Superconcentrated Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide Electrolyte,” Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 5684 doi: 10.1038/srep05684
Hydrogenics Corporation, a leading developer and manufacturer of hydrogen generation and hydrogen-based power modules, was selected by the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) for Ontario as one of five grid storage projects. The Hydrogenics project, which will use PEM electrolyzers in a Power-to-Gas system, will deliver 2MW of storage capacity and be located in the Greater Toronto Area.
Hydrogenics will supply the facility’s next-generation PEM electrolyzers and is partnering with Enbridge Inc. to develop, build and operate the energy storage facility to provide regulation services to the IESO under contract.
We are very excited to have been awarded this Power-to-Gas project, the first of its kind in North America. We have already experienced the positive impact of having a highly visible reference site with E.ON in Germany, and our partnership with Enbridge will make this application an excellent reference site closer to home. We appreciate the leadership of the Ontario Ministry of Energy to invest in clean energy storage technologies and the IESO for providing this platform for energy innovation.—Daryl Wilson, CEO of Hydrogenics
IESO will finalize contracts with Hydrogenics and the four other organizations by the end of the summer.IESO grid storage projects Lead organization Technology MW Canadian Solar Solutions Inc. Battery 4 Convergent Energy and Power LLC Battery
The IESO issued a request for proposals in March for up to 35 MW of storage capabilities to provide:
regulation service which acts on a second-to-second basis to match generation to demand and helps correct variations in power system frequency; and/or
reactive support and voltage control which are needed to maintain voltages and support the flow of electricity along power lines.
These projects were evaluated on numerous criteria including cost, diversity of technology options, and geographic location. While most of projects will be connected to the high-voltage transmission grid, the selection criteria also included a requirement for some projects to be connected to local distribution networks.
The cost of these contracts is expected to be approximately $14 million per year for three years and is very competitive relative to comparable storage projects.
Delphi Automotive PLC will unveil the second generation of its Technology Truck concept highlighting future technologies at the upcoming IAA Commercial Vehicles show being held 25 Sept - 2 Oct in Hannover, Germany.
Among the technologies Delphi will unveil is the next-generation fuel injection system for commercial vehicles applications. The system, which builds on the performance of its 2700 bar F2 common rail technologies, includes a patented fuel injector and will help vehicle manufacturers meet future legislated emissions and fuel efficiency levels. Also at IAA, Delphi will showcase the new second-generation High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI) natural gas injector for heavy-duty engine applications. Delphi co-developed the new HPDI injector with Westport.
Also featured will be:
A new high-performance, modular family of high-pressure Diesel Common Rail Systems for medium-duty applications.
Fundamental safety building blocks for future automated vehicles. The supplier will showcase its latest vision and radar sensors based on Delphi vision and fusion algorithms. Among these technologies are autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and lane departure warning (LDW) systems which will be mandatory features for all new heavy-duty vehicles by 1 Nov 2015.
Ethernet penetration in new vehicles will grow from 1% in 2014 to 40% in 2020 according to ABI research. Delphi’s Ethernet Connectivity enables vehicle systems to communicate and share information at a speed of 100 megabits per second
Latest integrated infotainment display for commercial vehicles delivers critical information to drivers with maximum safety. Delphi will show to the European market the new DEA600 smart display that integrates numerous advanced technologies with robust design elements. It combines traditional radio functionalities with modern connectivity options and internet access. This integrated display for commercial vehicles is one of the first of its kind to use the Android operating system.
Reconfigurable clusters to minimize driver distraction: As truck drivers have access to increasing amounts of information while on the road, driver distraction is a growing concern. Delphi offers full-color, high-resolution and entirely reconfigurable vehicle cockpit instrument panel displays that help create a safer driving experience. The system displays key driver information within 20º field-of-view and uses photorealistic 3D graphics.
Wireless device charging provides convenience, safer driving experience: Commercial vehicles rely on a number of mobile devices to communicate between drivers and to manage fleets, as well as to entertain, inform and keep drivers safe on their journey. Delphi’s wireless device charging eliminates multiple charging cords in the vehicle cabin and replaces them with an automatic, safe and convenient charging system. Delphi developed a multi-mode system that is compliant with latest charging standards, including the highly resonant technology to cover a full range of consumer devices.
Enhanced range of high voltage connection systems to meet the robust requirements of commercial vehicles: Delphi will show a new range of high voltage connectors and accessories that has been developed to handle high vibrations in harsh environments.
Delphi presented its first generation Tech Truck at IAA in 2012. The emphasis at that show was on the heavy duty common rail system; a low-cost common rail fuel injection system for heavy duty diesel applications in emerging markets; diesel exhaust sensors and diagnostics of diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems; and safety technologies including autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and lane departure warning (LDW) systems.
Audi will be the first to test its automated driving technology on the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway in Tampa, Florida—which recently was designated as an automated driving and connected car test bed—using an Audi A7 equipped to handle piloted driving functions on freeway conditions up to 40 mph (64 km/h).
Audi believes this initial version of piloted driving—Traffic Jam Pilot—could be available to consumers within five years. As Audi outlined this type of piloted driving functionality at CES in 2013 (earlier post), the system is based on the functionality of Audi adaptive cruise control with Stop & Go, extended by adding the component of lateral guidance.
If the system detects a traffic jam situation (with physical separation of the opposing lane or lanes) at speeds below its 40 mph threshold, the driver can activate the function. The system then takes over the steering; it also accelerates and brakes autonomously. The Audi system for piloted driving in traffic jams continuously assesses the status of the car and its entire surroundings. The car behaves exactly like Audi ACC stop & go in accelerating and braking; it also reacts cooperatively to cars moving into or out of the lane.
When piloted driving reaches its system limits are reached, such as when the traffic jam dissolves or the end of a divided road is reached, it prompts the driver to take back control.
If the driver does not take back control within a few seconds of being prompted, light braking and a more intensive warning are triggered. If the driver fails to react within an additional five seconds, the system establishes a minimal-risk state. The car is braked to a stop and the hazard warning lights are activated.
As described at CES in 2014, the piloted traffic jam system uses a radar system to monitor the area in front of the car in a 35-degree field of view and at a distance of up to 250 meters (820). A video camera with a wide angle of aperture detects the lane markings as well as pedestrians and objects, such as other vehicles and guard rails. Up to twelve ultrasonic sensors are used to monitor the space near the car.
A laser scanner is now being used for the first time. It provides highly precise data at a range of up to 80 meters (262.47 ft). Its laser diode emits nearly 100,000 infrared light pulses per second that are invisible to the human eye.
The sensor scans a field of view of 140 degrees with a resolution of 0.25 degrees over four different levels. The control unit computes a highly detailed surroundings profile from the light reflections. This profile represents other vehicles as well as guard rails. The key advantages of the laser scanner are:
Because of the large angle of aperture, cars entering the lane are detected very early.
The laser diode means that it is fully functional in the dark.
Its measurement method enables it to detect any objects, even those with a solid pattern or with no visible structure.
As an assistance function, piloted driving in a traffic jam enables the driver to devote his or her attention, within certain limits, to other activities while the system is operating. If the vehicle reaches the limits of the function, for instance the traffic jam disperses, the driver is prompted to take over control.
Audi has also said it is developing piloted driving for parking at curbside and in garages.
In 2012, Governor Scott signed into law HB 1207, which allowed the testing of autonomous vehicles in the state, and made Florida one of only three states (Nevada and California being the other two) where automobile and technology manufacturers could invest, with certainty, in research and design projects for autonomous technology. Because Florida created an environment that allows for the testing and development of autonomous technology, companies such as Audi have decided to bring research and development efforts to the state.
Governor Scott has cited this kind of R&D work as a catalyst for attracting leading engineers, scientists, and students to Florida as they define the future of transportation. The state also is hopeful that this research will unlock innovations that will bring safety advances to Florida drivers sooner.
To highlight the role that the State of Florida is playing in the development of automated driving and connected cars, Audi will hold a press conference with Governor Scott on Monday, 28 July. Immediately after the press conference, Governor Scott, Florida State Senator Jeff Brandes and select media will be offered the opportunity to experience the technology first hand in the driver’s seat of the Audi A7.